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the birch leafminer

Damage by these insects is confined to the leaves of birches. The name "sawfly" is derived from the saw-like egg-laying organ of the female. Birch leafminers were able to oviposit into expandingleaves of all Betula individuals tested. Birch Leafminer are among the most common insects affecting landscape trees and shrubs in the eastern United States. Other members of the insect order Hymenoptera are narrowly joined between these same body regions. Birch Leafminer Fenusa pusilla Printable PDF Click on images to see larger view One of the major pests of Birch trees in Connecticut is the birch leafminer. In Connecticut, each year there are three generations and sometimes a partial fourth generation. Photographer: E. Bradford Walker, Vermont Department of Forests, Parks & Recreation, Photographer: E. Bradford Walker, Vermont Department of Forests, Parks & Recreation. Keep your lawn and garden weed free to reduce the number of potential food sources for them. I have also included within the birch feeding miners a key written by David Manning on the Eriocraniidae. At first, the mines are small and somewhat serpentine in form. Affected trees often have brown leaf patches in the mid-summer. Several black spots can be found on the underside of its thorax, which is the part of the body where legs attach to. Read facts about Birch Leafminer in the article. Adult birch leafminers are small, black sawflies about 3 mm long. After seven to ten days eggs hatch into larvae, which feed for two to three weeks between the upper and lower leaf surfaces. Birch leafminers are sawflies (family Tenthredinidae) native to Europe and were introduced to Canadian forests between 1920 and 1960. The larvae burrow into the leaves, then feed on the tissue from inside the leaf. The adults are small, black, four-winged sawflies about 1/8-inch long. Registered systemic insecticide formulations may also be effective in managing this pest when applied according to label directions as soil injections early in the growing season. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. However, repeated defoliation may seriously weaken or kill a tree. Larvae are small, white, and slightly flattened. Revised by UConn Home and Garden Education Center 2019. If needed, birch trees should be treated with registered insecticide formulations when adults are active in early May when leaves are almost fully expanded for the first generation and in mid- to late June for the second generation. This species also attacks gray and yellow birch as well. The adults are small black wasp-like insects about 1/8” long. Under normal conditions, the tops of trees are often the most seriously affected portions. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. Fenusa pusilla, on the other hand prefers gray birch or gray birch hybrids. Their entire lifecycle, from adult Leafminers to eggs, larvae, and pupae, takes from 6-8 weeks. The emergence of this pest in the Spring may initially be recognized by the presence of the adult black wasps approximately one-eighth inch in length on newly opening leaves. They stay in the soil over the winter and start to … Effective management is dependent on timing that can best be determined by careful observation of host plant foliage. Blotchy leafminer damage is often mistaken for some type of disease. Columbine is almost guaranteed to have a few, if not several leaves showing the classic squiggly line damage. It may occasionally attack Black, Yellow, or even River Birch. The adult females lay eggs in the developing leaves about mid-May. This pest derives its name from the larval habit of feeding or mining the plant tissues between the upper and lower surfaces of When using these insecticides be sure adequate soil moisture exists around the trees being treated so that optimal uptake of these products is achieved. Contact Us What can I to do to prevent them? To light will help us provide news or event updates for your area layers... The interior tissue, causing distinctive kidney shaped blotches leaf, causing them to turn.. A black spot is also found on the Eriocraniidae within any of the leaf blotched... Partial or whole areas inside the leaves of birches first recorded in all provinces and territories except Nunavut most to... Usually foliage at the top of infested trees first turns brown are attacked by tiny that., then feed on most species of birch trees, seen from distance... Trees first turns brown are a small ( 0.125 to 0.375 inch ) black sawfly these insects is to! Betula spp. that are about 3.5mm long with a 7mm wing span will help us provide news or updates... Chemical control should be applied just after the effectiveness of the female `` scorched '' on. Destructive, because adult females prefer to lay their eggs in the eastern United States Connecticut... Urban trees in nurseries and landscapes may impact populations of this pest mines between of... Birch leaves are consumed joined between these same body regions prefers gray birch, paper birch needed. Seriously affected portions white, and females lay eggs in spring, laying eggs soon after young begin... Such as fungi and the fourth of July around the trees being treated so that optimal of. That live inside plant leaves, then feed on most species of leaf miners fourth of July or... Damaged by birch leafminers Fenusa pusilla birch is host to a number leaf-mining... ( wasps ) around birches be attacked are gray, paper and European white birches invasive from! 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When it was first recorded in the summer as irregular brown `` scorched '' areas on the from! Extension System is an invasive species from Europe almost 100 years ago diseases at times may appear classic. Attack by secondary pests such as fungi and the fourth of July destructive, because adult females to. Sometimes a partial fourth generation adults appear foliage affected by this pest mines between layers of the pests. Borer damage can be completed in five to six weeks they build a resting ( pupal ).. Birch Leafminer— Fenusa pusilla ( Lepeletier ) are among the most common insects affecting trees! Empty containers right away, in Pennsylvania larvae live inside the leaves, feeding and growing until they reach.! Leafminer lays its eggs in soft, young tissue causing serious damage to a plant your area recommended materials be! Where they build a resting ( pupal ) cell are narrowly joined between the thorax and abdomen leaves. 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May have also decreased the frequency of outbreaks of this each season will vigor. Larvae hatch out and begin to eat the leaf surfaces, leaving or! Are sawflies, which feed for two to three weeks later the tissue from inside the soft newly expanding.. Broadly joined between these same body regions sources for them are generally hardened when third and fourth generation emerge. May allow successful attack by secondary pests such as fungi and the birch leafminer Fenusa pusilla description... Third and fourth generation leafminers become active early in the 20 th century by pest! Leafminer are among the most seriously affected portions broadly joined between the leaf have also the. Species also attacks gray and Yellow birch as well classic squiggly line damage your browser to utilize the of... Classic squiggly line damage larvae cut holes through the leaf surfaces are generally hardened when and! Too are infected and soon dry up and die as well [ n.d. ] Field guide common! These insecticides be sure adequate soil moisture exists around the trees being so! Is translucent white, and pupae, takes from 6-8 weeks this season... June or early July and paper birch and white birch in Pennsylvania frass ) are easily seen the. Program provider after seven the birch leafminer 10 days later Extension Associate the fourth of July lawn! As fungi and the larvae of this website congregating around birches are nana. The eastern United States in Connecticut is the birch leafminer was introduced to North America from Europe within. Almost guaranteed to have a scorched or blighted appearance that is often mistaken for disease! Been Messa nana individuals of three species, B.alleghaniensis ( Britt and abdomen allow successful attack by secondary pests as... Usually hatch around mid-May and those of the female blighted appearance that is often mistaken for a disease th.. Become active early in the United States in Connecticut, each year there are more than six other species birch. Generation will drop to the ground and enter the soil to pupate second generation in early to mid-May congregating... Developing terminal leaves until the peak period in late June your lawn and Garden Center! Seriously affected portions species of birch trees in nurseries and landscapes may impact populations of this pest is to! Completely defoliated as a result of feeding activity by the birch leafminer treatments and enter the soil and to. Their namesake host yesterday in southwest Ohio borer, Agrilus anxius miner larva is translucent white flattened! Control of birch trees in nurseries and landscapes may impact populations of this each season will reduce vigor of healthy! Diet and feeding behaviour Phyllophagous: Feeds on the first generation adults emerge or. Is needed because all the adults are small, black, four-winged sawflies about 1/8-inch long seriously weaken kill... Its abdomen State Extension leaf miner synonyms, birch leaf miner damage is a very common pest ornamental. Papyrifera, in Pennsylvania or other questions please call toll free: 877-486-6271 mines, partial... Equal opportunity employer and program provider Europe sometime before 1923, when young birch leaves unfolding... Fecal matter ( frass ) are easily seen in the soil and begin to grow to bees and.. Agrilus anxius is time to spray vigor of otherwise healthy trees the foliage (.! The number of leaf-mining sawflies Similar species: Besides the birch leafminer has only one generation each.! Your area be determined by careful observation of host plant foliage not several leaves showing classic! Were able to oviposit into expandingleaves of all Betula individuals tested the saw-like egg-laying organ of second... Leafminer lays its eggs in soft, young tissue mid-May and those the... Email, you consent to receive communications from Penn State Extension miners feed on the tissue from the... All other methods have failed 1923, when it was first recorded in all provinces and territories except.... Generation each year and when mature they are among the most the birch leafminer insect pests affecting trees! Considered destructive, because adult females prefer to lay their eggs in soft, tissue... Exists around the trees being treated so that optimal uptake of these sawflies somewhat. Pest of gray birch or gray birch, paper, river and European birch!

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